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The glycemic index (GI) of a food is not based on normal sized servings of foods. The original GI tests involved giving subjects enough of the food to equal 50 grams of digestible carbohydrates. Therefore the portion size of each GI tested food could vary according to how much digestible carbohydrate it contained minus indigestible fiber content.
Carrots, for example, have only about 7 percent carbohydrates, which means that the amount of carrots given to the test subjects was large - around 1.5 pounds. Servings of some higher carb foods such as bread (especially white bread with no fiber), would be quite a bit smaller. You can look at a carb counter to get an idea about this. Look for the carb count in a serving of that food in grams. As you might have figured out, foods lower in carbohydrates are generally lower on the glycemic index. In addition, there is something called the glycemic load of a food and that is based on an actual serving size.
One of the easiest ways to use the glycemic index is as a general indicator of how much a given food might raise your blood glucose. As you can guess, it's best to focus on the ones with the lowest GI.
Generally safe foods for all diabetics are those that are low on the glycemic index. Particularly protein foods like meat, fish, eggs, and tofu will not raise blood sugar excessively. They also tend to prevent low blood sugar, which can be dangerous, as you probably know. Also most raw vegetables and most raw nuts are safe.
Here is a list of very low glycemic index foods that would be good choices for diabetics:http://www.diabetes-guide.org/low-glycemic-index-foods.htm
These articles cover the glycemic index of foods - low glycemic index foods can help prevent low blood sugar:http://www.diabetes-guide.org/glycemic-index.htmhttp://www.diabetes-guide.org/glycemic-list.htm
Here's an article on how to create your own ideal diabetic diet:http://www.diabetes-guide.org/glucose-meter.htm
Here are a couple of articles about diets for diabetes:http://www.diabetes-guide.org/american-diabetes-association-diet.htmhttp://www.diabetes-guide.org/diabetic-diet.htm